Why cross-country flights are more popular than trains in Norway
Figures have revealed that routes between Oslo and Bergen and the capital and Trondheim are among the most flown in Europe, with around 20 departures a day in each direction. So why are Norwegians opting for flights over the train?
Flights between Oslo and Bergen and Trondheim and Oslo were the fourth and fifth busiest air routes in Europe last year, according to European data agency Eurostat.
Around 44 daily flights between Oslo and Trondheim and 38 between Bergen and the capital took off last year, contributing to some 222,622 domestic flights in total in 2022.
Research from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) found that Norwegians' flying habits contributed to twice as many C02 emissions as Swedish, German or French air passengers.
Flights between Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim account for around 20 percent of emissions caused by domestic flights within Norway, public broadcaster NRK reports.
So why are Norwegians choosing to fly between cities rather than taking the train or other means of transport?
Climate researcher Helene Muri from NTNU said that several factors explain why domestic flights are far more popular than trains.
First of all, she told NRK that the cost of taking a long-distance train between cities in Europe is cheaper and faster than it is in Norway.
"The average Norwegian often has enough to travel with to be able to take a weekend trip and take these perhaps unnecessary flights. Trains in Norway are quite expensive, so when flying is cheaper and faster, you understand that people choose it," she told NRK.
For example, a flight between Oslo and Bergen can be completed in under an hour, while the train between Bergen and Oslo can take six to eight hours to complete. Trains to Trondheim from the capital take a similar time too.
In some cases, such as when travelling to Tromsø from further south in Norway, a flight may be the most practical option due to Norway's geography.
"For example, Oslo-Tromsø is a stretch where it is not easy to find alternative means of transport," Muri explained.
Another reason why planes may be more attractive than trains is due to the sheer number of flights compared to trains. Recently the number of trains between Oslo and Bergen has been cut due to a lack of demand, with there typically being around four departures per day.
In comparison, there are flight departures just over once an hour between the two biggest cities in Norway, meaning finding a flight to fit around one's plans and itinerary is much easier.
The popularity of flying between cities in Norway comes despite train travel contributing 12.2 grams of C02 per passenger per kilometre to the 236 grams of C02 emitted by planes per traveller and kilometre.
Muri said that to entice more travellers onto trains, journey speeds and onboard amenities would need to be improved.
"The time it takes to take a train between cities in Norway has actually increased. It takes longer now than it did before. It's a bit remarkable and takes things in a bit of a wrong direction," she said.
"Increased capacity, increased speed and the availability of stable broadband in the trains are measures that can help shift traffic from the air onto the railway network," she added.