What foreigners in Norway need to know about Nynorsk?
Nynorsk - Norway's second official written language - is a key part of the country's history and is still the official form of Norwegian in parts of the country. Here's what you need to know.
Some readers may find it a surprise to learn that the small country of Norway has two official written languages.
Both the Bokmål and Nynorsk variations of Norwegian are viewed as the national written languages of the country.
And while Bokmål may be the more popular of the two, Nynorsk, which translates as "new/modern Norwegian", is still used by up to 15 percent of the population and is mandatory in schools.
How there came to be two variations of Norwegian in Norway
Norwegian is considered to be a part of the North Germanic languages, which include: Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, and Faroese. All of these languages stem from the same parent language, Old Norse. Old Norse was eventually replaced by Danish (though not in Iceland).
In the 1530s, Norway was under Danish rule when Protestantism replaced Catholicism. As a result, Danish became even more prominent in Norway as all holy texts were in Danish.
In 1814, the territory known as Norway was acquired by Sweden but was still allowed to operate as semi-independent. Around this time, many Norwegians found it problematic that Danish was the primary language and began a linguistic reformation pivoting from Danish to Norwegian.
This transformation took decades. In addition to the reformation, another strategy Norwegians used to create their own language involved the investigation of Old Norse and incorporating it into the modern language.
Both strategies resulted in the birth of the Norwegian language. However, the outcome was two different variations of Norwegian. Bokmål or "Book Language" (derived from Danish), and Nynorsk or "New Norwegian" (derived from the regional dialects of Norway).
How similar is Nynorsk to Bokmål?
Depending on where you settle in Norway, you may be offered Norwegian courses either in Bokmål or Nynorsk. Even though the languages are similar, do not switch between the two while learning the language, as it could make learning the grammar complicated and impact how you pronounce certain words.
Orally, there isn't an official difference because the two are, officially, purely written languages. Instead, differences in spoken Norwegian mainly stem from different regional dialects. The way some dialects are pronounced can sound similar to how one would expect Nynorsk to be pronounced were it a spoken language.
The written form is where the most significant difference is seen. Nynorsk is mainly used in Western and Central Norway by about 10 percent of residents.
A town or municipality in this country can decide if Nynorsk or Bokmål will be the official language. They can also decide to not choose between the two and be standard neutral. A quick way to identify if you are driving through or staying in a municipality that uses mainly Nynorsk is by looking at the road signs and noticing how directions are spelt on them.
Below is a map representing municipalities that have declared Nynorsk as the official language (in blue), Bokmål (in red), and standard neutral (in grey).
Source: Norwegian Language Learning
Can I understand Nynorsk if I am not from Norway and have learned Bokmål?
Generally, yes. But the amount you're able to understand depends on your level of Norwegian. You've likely already noticed Norway has plenty of different dialects, with some being more difficult to understand than others.
You will likely understand what a local is saying to you in a dialect Nynorsk is derived from, but reading it would prove to be a bit more complicated.
Below is an example provided by Norwegian Language Learning.
Bokmål: Vi har syv / sju ravner, en / ei kråke og flere linerler.
Nynorsk: Vi / Me har sju ramnar, ei kråke og fleire linerler.
English: We have seven ravens, a crow, and several wagtails.
As one can see, the spelling and the lack of masculine and feminine article options in Nynorsk are obvious separators of the two languages.
Another noticeable grammatical difference between Nynorsk and Bokmål is that plural endings for masculine gender nouns are different. Take en hund, or "a dog", for example.
The government's regulation of Nynorsk in the media
Even though a large part of the population in Norway uses Bokmål, the Norwegian government has rules set in place to make sure Nynorsk is represented. The use of Nynorsk is regulated in public service institutions such as in the media.
State-owned broadcasting company NRK must have at least 25 percent of its verbal elements in both television and radio be in regional dialects. This could be confusing for foreigners if they were not aware. A newcomer can click on an article to read on the NRK website and suddenly not be able to decipher the text. Don't worry about your language skills slipping, as the article is likely written in Nynorsk.
Below is a graph showing how much Nynorsk was used in each of the NRK channels last year.
There is a third official language in parts of Norway
Bokmål and Nynorsk may be the two official administrative languages in Norway. But in some parts of the country, Samisk or "Sami" has an official standing. Sami is the language spoken by the native Sami people of Norway.
Two variations of Sami are spoken, though two-thirds of the residents who speak it (mainly in Troms and Finnmark in the North) speak North Sami over its counterpart, East Sami. You can find articles or newspapers written in Sami, though the use of it in government and education in Norway is almost non-existent.
Sami has the status of a minority language in Norway, Sweden and Finland. However, Sami has the status of an official language in Sami administrative areas within the countries. Unlike the similarities between Nynorsk and Bokmål, Sami derives from the Fenno-Ugrian languages and can not be understood by even native Norwegian speakers.
Vocabulary in Nynorsk and useful facts
Ivar Aasen is considered the creator of Nynorsk. As a language researcher, he both collected and systemised different dialects around Norway. His work is the basis for what we know today as Nynorsk.
Previously, learning Nynorsk in school was a requirement. At the time of writing, The Education Act is being reviewed, and any changes for Nynorsk will be announced when new legislation has been enacted. The debate over the continued study of Nynorsk in schools has been quite active in the media for years.
skule - school
korkje - neither
naudsynt - necessary