In a custom that might seem outlandish in other countries, Norway publishes the tax records of every individual in the country once annually.
The country has long published tax returns, and since 2001 the information has been available as an online database on the website of the Norwegian Tax Administration. The lists for 2020 are the first in which the effects of the pandemic are visible on peoples incomes and wealth.
In 2020, 4.9 people in Norway paid a combined total of 621 billion taxes. This is a slight decrease on the 637 billion kroner that residents paid in tax in 2019.
As well as fortunes and taxes paid over the last year, the published tax information can also be searched to see how much Norwegian taxpayers earned in the previous year.
Investor and businessman Kjell Inge Røkke has reclaimed the top spot as Norway’s wealthiest resident with an estimated wealth of 19 billion kroner. Last year’s wealthiest individual, 28-year-old Gustav Magnar Witzøe, has moved down to the second richest individual. Witzøe’s net wealth trailed Røkke’s by over 10 million kroner. Sister’s Alexandra and Katharina Andresen were the wealthiest women in 2020. Both were listed with a fortune of around 5.6 billion kroner.
Businessman and philanthropist Trond Mohn was Norway’s highest earner last year, with an income of 303 million kroner. The second-highest earner was former rally driver and real estate investor Ivar Tollefsen. Tollefsen took home 289 million kroner last year in income. Finally, financier Øystein Stray Spetalen had the country’s third-highest pay packet with an income of around 259 million kroner.
What information is included on the list?
Information including name, year of birth and tax municipality can be seen on the open tax list, along with the net income, net fortune and the amount of tax paid.
It is not possible to hide one’s information from the tax list as published by the Norwegian Tax Administration, or the summary sent to the media.
What doesn’t the list tell us?
Some factors can result in information being withheld from the list. These include if the information can reveal a confidential client relationship; and people whose addresses are legally unlisted on the public register (folkeregister).
Information on people with no fixed address; people under the age of 17 and deceased persons is also not included.
Meanwhile, the tax information included on the list can be attached to some caveats, as NRK points out.
The tax list shows net incomes with all tax deductions taken into account. People who have large outstanding loans can appear to have a lower income on the tax list than their actual gross income would predict, if this was visible.
Other deductions which are applied to the income information are the minimum deduction (minstefradrag), which is designed to cover standard expenses connected to employment; deductions for families; and deductions for losses made from sales of property or shares.
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As such, it is possible to have a high actual income, but for the tax list to show a lower income.
Similarly, the figures given for personal fortunes may not be completely accurate, because a home, for example, may be given a lower value for tax purposes than its real value. As such, someone who owns an expensive home may be worth more than their ‘personal fortune’ on the tax list.
The numbers are based on preliminary tax figures from the Norwegian Tax Administration.If someone has a large debt, this will be deducted from their net fortune.
How can you search for people’s incomes in Norway?
If you are a Norwegian resident, you can search the tax lists here, simply by logging on with your national MinID or BankID code.
According to the tax agency, there were 1.6 million searches on its database in 2018, showing that Norwegians continue to be curious about what other people earn.
This is, however, only about a tenth of the number of searches there used to be before 2014, when the tax authority started to allow people to find out who had been searching for their tax information, something generally credited to a reluctance among Norwegians to appear nosy.