Gilles Elkaim was convicted of violating several local rules including anchoring in a forbidden nature reserve, failing to notify the authorities of his stops in protected areas, and travelling with dogs without necessary veterinary authorisation.
A court in Tromsø, located in northern Norway, also ruled the 56-year-old Frenchman must reimburse legal costs of 10,000 kroner (1,090 euros, $1,180).
"It's a safe bet that we will appeal the decision if it's not favourable, "Elkaim had told AFP in a written message on Monday, slamming the case against him as a "parody of justice".
Norwegian authorities impounded his Arktika 2.0 vessel, a 15-metre sailboat carrying three people and seven sled dogs, last October in Longyearbyen, the capital of Svalbard.
Elkaim claims to have decided to spend winter in a northeastern fjord of the archipelago due to a pump failure and bad weather that prevented his boat from reaching its point of departure in the Arctic.
The purpose of a planned two-year expedition was to drift in icy waters between the islands of New Siberia and Greenland, then reach the North Pole by sledge.
In November, the adventurer refused to pay a fine of 25,000 kroner (2,730 euros, $2,950), which resulted in a trial in Longyearbyen in February.
Norway was afforded sovereignty of Svalbard, located around a thousand kilometres (around 621 miles) from the North Pole, under the 1920 Treaty of Paris.
Nationals of all signatory states - including France - enjoy "equal liberty of access and entry", but the agreement also allows Oslo to take measures to protect flora and fauna on this archipelago populated by many polar bears.