In an acceptance speech broadcast over a video link to a ceremony for the Norwegian Academy of Literature and Freedom of Expression's Bjornson prize on Saturday, he said that the Russian government's actions were misguided.
"This drive that we see in the Russian government to control more and more the Internet, to control more and more what people are seeing, even parts of personal lives, deciding what is the appropriate or inappropriate way for people to express their love for one another … [is] fundamentally wrong."
Snowden participated in the ceremony via video link from Moscow as the Norwegian government could not guarantee that he would not be extradited to the USA if he arrived in Norway.
Norwegian public broadcaster NRK released documents earlier this week that showed the the US had asked Norway to extradite Snowden should he enter Norway.
The academy awarded Snowden the prize "for his work on the important issue of the right of privacy."
"We will honour you as the most important whistleblower of our times," said Hege Newth Nouri, the organisation's Secretary General.
Snowden has been in exile in Russia since June 2013, when he arrived from Hong Kong in transit to Ecuador. The US cancelled his passport while he was on the plane, making it impossible for him to reach his final destination.
Since August 2014, Snowden has been living in Russia under a three-year residence permit.
"I honestly never expected to be free today; I expected to be in prison. I didn't expect to get awards; I expected my reputation to be ruined, because a number of incredibly powerful officials around the world were personally embarrassed because of these revelations," Snowden said.