The comedian, who takes over as host of the extremely popular Late Show on September 8th, made his call in a YouTube video promoting next month's Global Citizen Festival in New York.
"You see, Norway is a leader in funding education worldwide and if they agree to increase their support for the global partnership for education then the rest of the world will follow," he says in the video.
"Norway has always been a trend setter. I mean just look look at the Vikings. They were into ridiculous beards way before Brooklyn."
The campaign aims to pressure Norway to increase its funding for the Global Partnership for Education from the $30m it contributed last year to $100m a year over the next five years.
Norwegian foreign minister Børge Brende has announced that the annual support for the charity will be increased gradually to around $70m by 2017.
Colbert then attempts to sway Norwegians by eating lutefisk -- the country's glutinous air-dried cod specialty -- and listening to Norwegian death metal.
"I promise to eat the rest of that later," he said as he pushed away plate of white goo after one bite, adding: "My goodness, that has a fishy aftertaste."
Supporters were prompted to ask Erna Solberg politely to increase funding with the hashtag #educationfjorall
Colbert's initial tweet has been favourited 445 times.
Solberg has yet to tweet a response.